Word
Action number 24007 Last updated 21/04/2011 16:51:42 Year 2011
Title Air, Climate and Human interactions
Acronym AIRCLIM
Type Action
Url http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
Institute JRC.H Institute for environment and sustainability (Ispra)
Leader BOROWIAK Annette JRC.H.2   E-Mail
2 Solidarity and the responsible management of resources
2.4 Climate change
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Member States Competent Authorities for Air Quality
European Committee for Standardization
European Environment Agency
European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme
International Energy Agency
International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
World Health Organization
Customer DGs AGRI - Agriculture and Rural Development
CLIMA - Climate Action
ENER - Energy
ENTR - Enterprise and Industry
ENV - Environment
MOVE - Mobility and Transport
RTD - Research
Climate Change, Air pollution, Air quality, Integration of Policies, Emission inventories and scenarios, Source apportionment, Climate modelling, Atmospheric Transport Modelling, Ensemble Modelling Impacts, Radiative forcing, Human health, Exposure, Ecosystems, Monitoring, Global scale, Regional scale, Urban scale, Greenhouse gases, Methane, Ozone, Aerosol, Particulate matter, Black carbon, Organic carbon, Harmonization, Intercomparisons
Rationale
Air pollution and climate change are linked in several ways. As a consequence they may both be beneficially addressed by common policies. Policy integration can offer cost savings. This is particularly true in developed countries, where typically the low cost air pollution control technologies have already been widely implemented, and further reductions will increasingly come from structural and behavioural measures. Such integration will be considered during the 2013 review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. In developing countries economic growth and the associated structural changes in energy, transport and agricultural production systems, provide the opportunity to abate air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions simultaneously. Such co-benifits of structural changes for air pollution will reduce the costs of climate change policies, which or mainly based on structural changes.
Apart from consideration of costs, the overall environmental effectiveness of integrated policies is also an issue. Immediate investments in low-carbon and carbon-free energy technologies is clearly the long term solution (> 100 years) for both air pollution and climate, but the short term implications (< 30 years), for climate in particular, still need to be carefully examined. For example, the present focus of air pollution policy on reducing the total mass concentration of aerosols (PM10, PM2.5), while good for human health, might indeed lead to warming. An emerging issue is the potential for mitigating short-term global warming by reducing specific shorter lived warming agents, notably black carbon, tropospheric ozone and methane. The cost and environmental effectiveness of such complementary policies still need to be quantified and requires improved understanding of the impacts of air pollutants on both climate and human health. As most of the emission reductions will take place at urban scale, the hand-over of pollutants from urban-to-regional-to global scales need to be better addressed, in order to quantify the effectiveness of local emission control strategies for regional and global air pollution and climate.
World-wide reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases remains the top priority to address climate change, but the longer the delay in implementing these reductions, the more important complementary policies become.
Summary of the activity
The Action will focus on EU- and world-wide air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission reduction polices and their effects on climate change and air pollution, in particular human health.
It will contribute to the full cycle of policy making from problem definition and anticipation, to the assessment of policy options, to the implementation, evaluation and revision of policies.
The Action will support the Commission and Member States in the implementation of the Air Quality Directive (AQD), by harmonizing assessment methodologies, based on modelling and monitoring. To do so it will run centralized activities like the European Reference Laboratory for Air Pollution (ERLAP) and ENSEMBLE (Forecasting medium and long range atmospheric dispersion), and work through its networks with Member States: AQUILA (Network of Air Quality Reference Laboratories) for monitoring and FAIRMODE (Forum for Air Quality Modelling in Europe) for modelling. Both these networks are run together with the European Environment Agency. Finally it will work with international standardization and metrology bodies like CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and EURAMET (European Metrology Organisation).
It will support EU and world-wide long term air pollution and greenhouse gas monitoring, in particular the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) network and activities within the GMES initiative. These programmes form the basis for determining the effectiveness, or otherwise, of policies and for giving early warnings regarding new issues.
The Action will contribute to the upcoming revisions of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (incl. Air Quality Directive and the National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD)), with the objective of increasing their effectiveness, i.e. through quantifying synergies with e.g. Energy and Climate Package and other Climate Change policies.
This will require coherent greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission inventories and projections, and the global emission inventory EDGAR (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research) will be further updated for that purpose.
The EDGAR emission database will be coupled to, e.g., de-carbonation scenario’s developed in Thematic Area 1 “Towards an open and competitive economy”, and the resulting air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission scenarios will be used in atmosphere and climate models, to investigate the effectiveness of integrated air pollution and climate change policy options. This, in turn, will form the basis for integrated assessments, resulting in quantifying the costs and benefits of policy options.
With its sister action BIOCLIM, the Action will continue to consolidate scientific knowledge of those parts of the Earth System, that underpins more effective and integrated air pollution and climate change policies. A particular effort is the running of the Atmosphere/ Biosphere/Climate – Integrated Station on the Ispra site (ABC-IS is composed of an EMEP air quality monitoring station and a forest greenhouse gas (GHG) flux tower and a GHG measurement mast) to monitor and evaluate the importance of feedbacks in the Earth System that can amplify or dampen the expected effects of air pollution and climate change policies.
The Action collaborates with the JRC Thematic Area 1“ Towards an open and competitive economy” on socio-economic and Climate Change modelling, with Thematic Area 2 “Development of a low carbon society” on emissions from energy and transport, with Thematic Area 7 “Reference materials and measurements” in the area of metrology in air pollution analysis and with several Actions within the Thematic Area 3 on “Sustainable Management of Natural Resources” (IES Actions SOLO, MAPLE and ENABLE) on Climate Change related issues.
The Action performs much of its work in the context of international programmes that operate at the interface of science and policy, such as the International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE)
The year 2011 will be a transition year in which old activities will be phased out and a start will be made with new activities that can increasingly be integrated in coming few years, in support of the JRC’s strategy for the Management on Natural Resources.
 
  1
To develop and harmonize monitoring methodologies, in support of the Commission and Member States in the implementation of the Air Quality Directive and for the revision of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution, by developing and harmonizing assessment methodologies, based on modelling and monitoring.
Deliverable  1.1
AQUILA-ERLAP reports on evaluation of inter-comparison exercises for for gaseous and particulate air pollutants (AA with DG ENV on AQUILA and CEN) (support to EEA)
31/12/2011
CAT3 - Validated and harmonized methods and measurements
Deliverable  1.2
Co-authoring of standards under development by the CEN Technical Committee 264 “Air Quality: Committee enquiry of standard proposals for the measurement of inorganic gaseous pollutants, particles and its compounds (AA with DG ENV on AQUILA and CEN)
31/12/2011
CAT3 - Validated and harmonized methods and measurements
Deliverable  1.3
Report on inter-calibration exercise of OC-EC measurements across Europe, organized as a contribution to I3 (Integrated Infrastructures Initiatives) project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Research), AQUILA Network and UNECE TF-MM.
31/12/2011
CAT3 - Validated and harmonized methods and measurements
Deliverable  1.4
Report on feasibility study to remotely monitor mobile and stationary emission sources based on 'ship emissions' Administrative Arrangement (2009-2010) with DG ENV.
31/12/2011
CAT4 - Technical systems
Deliverable  1.5
Validated micro-sensors (optical, semi-conductor, chemical) for monitoring inorganic gaseous air pollutants such as SO2, NOx and O3 for improving spatial assessment of air quality with a view to Digital Earth.
31/12/2011
CAT4 - Technical systems
Deliverable  1.6
Pocket diffusive sampler for ambient and exposure monitoring of VOCs and POPs in the framework of the JRC Innovation Project Competition.
31/12/2011
CAT4 - Technical systems
Deliverable  1.7
ERLAP Report on application of EDXRF to monitor AQ Directives' metals and its comparability to the reference method.
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
Deliverable  1.8
Database on equivalence data for PM monitoring systems (AA with DG ENV on AQUILA and CEN and FP7 project AirMonTech) [31.12.2010] [CAT 5 Other policy support products and services]
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
Deliverable  1.9
Scientific publications
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
  2
To develop and harmonize modelling methodologies, in support of the Commission and Member States in the implementation of the Air Quality Directive and the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (incl. National Emission Ceilings Directive)
Deliverable  2.1
FAIRMODE WG 2/SubGroup 4 report on the benchmarking procedure for air quality models in the frame of the Thematic Strategy for Air Pollution implementation and review phase
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  2.2
JRC/US-EPA Workshop report on the two continent model evaluation activity (AQMEII) and the use of the ENSEMBLE system as model evaluation platform.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  2.3
Report on the 2010 Workshop on the comparison of different source apportionment models to support the definition and monitoring of abatement strategies in the EU and the Thematic Strategy for Air Pollution.
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
Deliverable  2.4
Assessment report on modelling the EFIJALAJOKUL eruption of March 2010.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  2.5
Draft chapter of the role of hemispheric transport of air pollution, for the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  2.6
Scientific publications
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
  3
To support EU and world-wide long term air pollution and greenhouse gas monitoring, in particular the EMEP network and activities within the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) context.
Deliverable  3.1
One year dataset and report on one year of routine monitoring to the EMEP database in the frame of the European UN-ECE EMEP network.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  3.2
One year dataset and report on one year of aerosol monitoring within the FP7 ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network) project.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  3.3
One year dataset of gas and aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean and four seasonal datasets of seawater organic pollutant concentrations in the Mediterranean Sea from the Costa Crociera cruise ship (collaboration with IES Action 22001 MAPLE).
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  3.4
(i) Report, and presentation to the GMES Partners Board on the definition of a strategic implementation plan for a potential GMES service in the area of climate change and to evaluate ongoing climate change related projects in their capability to become future sustained activities. (ii) Reports/publications resulting from continued support to DG ENTR on 'Climate and Space' dossier. In collaboration with IES Action SOLO (AA DG ENTR 31867).
31/12/2011
CAT2 - Policy support documents
Deliverable  3.5
Scientific publications.
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
  4
To develop coherent greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission inventories and projections, in support of the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution in synergy with the Energy and Climate Package (in collaboration with IES Action ENABLE on IES Reference Data and Services Initiative)
Deliverable  4.1
Extension of EDGAR-HTAP (Hemispheric Transport of Air pollution) emission inventory until 2008 with a first version of the "nationally accepted EDGAR" with a compilation of officially reported national emissions that are gapfilled with the scientific EDGAR emissions. (follow-up to AA DG ENV 30718).[in collaboration with PBL, NL].
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  4.2
Report on the comparison of global emission scenarios: IPCC RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway), Commission de-carbonisation scenarios, and others. Input to the CCMP (JRC Climate Change Modelling Platform), in collaboration with IPTS Action ICPA-SEI.
30/06/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  4.3
Scenarios for future air pollutant and non-CO2 GHG emissions based on, a.o., the Commissions' de-carbonization scenario, enhancing the capability to assess co-benefits of climate change and air pollution policies. Input to CCMP, in collaboration with IPTS Action ICPA-SEI.
30/06/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  4.4
Evaluation of reported greenhouse gas emission inventories in support to DG Energy's work on Sustainable cities (Covenant of Mayors). In collaboration with IE Action REEF. [Under AA DG TREN 31253].
31/12/2011
CAT2 - Policy support documents
Deliverable  4.5
Scientific publications on greenhouse gas and air pollution emission inventories and projections.
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
  5
To perform integrated assessment of combined air pollution and climate policies, at EU and global scale, resulting in quantifying the costs and benefits of various policy options, supporting the Thematic Strategy for Air Pollution and its review.
Deliverable  5.1
Publication of the UNEP Assessment report on “Opportunities to Limit Near-Term Climate Change” with contributions of JRC
31/12/2011
CAT2 - Policy support documents
Deliverable  5.2
Scenarios for future global radiative forcing, air pollution and it impacts on human health and ecosystems, using the source-receptor model FASST and based on emissions developed in deliverable 4.3. Input to the CCMP, in collaboration with IPTS Action IPCA-SEI.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  5.3
Evaluation of the contribution from individual sectors to global radiative forcing, air pollution and it impacts on human health and ecosystems, using the source-receptor model FASST and based on the emission inventory EDGAR v4.1.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  5.4
Integrated Assessment report of the contribution of ship emissions, local emissions and long range transport to levels of short lived species (aerosols, ozone) and their impacts on radiative forcing, health and vegetation over the Mediterranean Area with the source-receptor model FASST.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  5.5
Draft chapter on Air Quality - Climate Change policy interactions, for the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  5.6
Scientific publications.
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
  6
To acquire and consolidate scientific knowledge of those parts of the Earth System (including humans), that underpins more effective and integrated air pollution and climate change policies.
Deliverable  6.1
One year of data from the ABC-IS: Atmosphere/Biosphere/Climate Integrated Station (= EMEP station + forest flux tower + GHG mast) in collaboration with BIOCLIM
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  6.2
Report on the future changes in chemistry-aerosol-climate interactions under future emission scenarios as evaluated in deliverable 4.3, Contribution to FP7 project PEGASOS.
31/12/2011
CAT2 - Policy support documents
Deliverable  6.3
Draft chapter on the interactions between the Carbon and Nitrogen cycles in the Earth System and their potential impact on air pollution and other environmental policies, as contribution to the review of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. In collaboration with JRC BIOCLIM Action.
31/12/2011
CAT5 - Other policy support products and services
Deliverable  6.4
Scientific publications.
31/12/2011
CAT7 - Scientific publications
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