!___BOLDITALIC___START!Policy Theme:!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! 1 Prosperity in a Knowledge intensive society
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Agenda No & Title: !___BOLDITALIC___STOP! 1.3 Energy and transport
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Sub-Agenda No & Title: !___BOLDITALIC___STOP! 1.3.1 Energy
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Web site address (URL): !___BOLDITALIC___STOP! re.jrc.ec.europa/bio
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Customer/Users (Outside the European Commission):!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! • African Union Commission (AUC) • EEA (European Environment Agency) • Research Institutions and Universities • UNEP
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Customer DGs( inside the European Commission):!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! • Agriculture and Rural Development-AGRI • EuropAid-AIDCO • Environment-ENV • Regional Policy-REGIO • External Relations-RELEX • Trade-TRADE • Energy and Transport-TREN
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Keywords: !___BOLDITALIC___STOP! Renewable energies, sustainability, biofuels, environmental impact assessment, bioenergy, greenhouse gas accounting, life-cycle analysis, well-to-wheels analysis, cost-supply curves, cost-benefit analysis
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Rationale:!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! Biofuels and bioenergy policies must be based on robust science; however the complexity and commercial importance of the subject means that policy-makers receive often contradictory information, sometimes of questionable technical quality. This Action aims to provide robust information on some of the most important quantifiable parameters needed to formulate biofuels and bioenergy policy, such as:- availability from EU and world sources,- energy balance,- greenhouse-gas-balance,- environmental impact,- cost of production and mobilisation,- potential in emerging countries,- competitive use and impact on existing industries.The Biofuels/Bioenergy Action was built at the beginning of FP7 on the foundation of the input of the IES Renewable Energies Unit to the impact assessment of the revision of the Biofuels Directive, in particular the JEC (Joint Research Centre, EUCAR, CONCAWE) Well-To-Wheels (WTW) study, which is recognised as one of the main existing references for energy balance, greenhouse-gas balance and costs of alternative fuels (including biofuels). Another study of reference was performed by the JRC on the use of cereals straw resources for bioenergy in the European Union.All the quantified benefits of biofuels have to be related to the cost-to-Europe. This is particularly important for the resource assessment; because knowing how much resource is available at what cost, and with which environmental impact, is of highest value. Some environmental parameters, e.g. water needs, soil erosion & degradation, impact on biodiversity would benefit from the reduced uncertainty linked to a geographical assessment of the biomass resource.A large part of the biofuels (or bioenergy feedstock) is expected to come from imports for example from tropical countries such as Brazil, Malaysia and Indonesia or other countries such as Russia. For this reason, the sustainability and resource considerations must extend beyond EU borders. In addition, it is important to reach high levels of policy coherence in the European Union but also for example in Africa in relation to the sugar reform and development aid.Regarding the legislative framework, the activities of the Bioenergy Action are performed in order to support DG TREN and provide technical input to the follow-up of the January 2008 Directive Proposal on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (COM (2008) 30). This Draft Directive proposed in January 2008 a binding 10% target for the share of renewable energy in transport petrol and diesel and is being reviewed by the European Parliament and the Council. In 2009, the Bioenergy Action will also provide ad-hoc support for example to the preparation of EC communications on bioenergy related issues and to the Strategic Energy Technologies Information System (SETIS). It will also provide support to EC DGs on the review of National Biomass Action Plans (BAPs) or the preparation of National Renewable Energies Plans. The Bioenergy contribution will be provided in close cooperation with the JRC Biofuels Task Force and other Actions such as the Cleancab Action more active on biomass conversion processes.
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Summary of the action:!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! The Action deals mainly with four issues, all interconnected:1. Greenhouse gas performance and cost of biofuelsThe Action will take care of updating the biofuels- aspects of the JEC WTW study, inserting improvements in the existing pathways (especially the second-generation biofuels routes), and expanding to cover new biofuels pathways (biodiesel from palm oil, soya#) as well as pathways for comparing alternative uses of biomass (electricity, heat-and-power, bio-heat).It will publish and justify a methodology for the assessment of GHG performance of different pathways to biofuels production and bioenergy. It will develop a simplified form to use as a basis for GHG certification for different biofuels processes in the implementation of biofuels policies.Partners: CONCAWE, EUCAR, Biofuels and other trade associations, IES-Transport and Air Quality Unit (Tank to Wheel part of JEC Well to Wheel study), DG-TREN, IPTS, Imperial College (on GHG certification) and others.2. Imported biofuels and feedstocksThe Action will contribute to a realistic assessment of the production potential and growth rate of major producer countries. This will include ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil and other major sugar producers, and oilseeds for biodiesel production in tropical countries such as Malaysia. In the longer term, assessments of lignocellulose biomass imports will be addressed. The assessment will take into account effects on use in the home market.Regarding the environmental impact in developing countries, this component will analyse the environmental impact of biofuels/bioenergy production in developing countries based on the practical experience from countries such as Brazil and Malaysia. Specific attention will be paid to the methods of quantification of agro-environmental impact and to the consequences of possible land use conversion for carbon stocks, soil, water and biodiversity.Partners: Iinternational Energy Agency IEA, Malaysian Palm Oil Council MPOC, Centre for Biomass of Brazil CENBIO, Wageningen University, Utrecht University, Oeko Institute, Heidleberg Institute for Environmental Research, World Wildlife Fund (WWF)#3. Biofuels and bioenergy certificationThe Action will monitor the development of biofuels/bioenergy certification systems, either at national or international, identify the main pending research issues and propose ad hoc solutions in view of practical implementation with a sound scientific basis. In particular, the Action will cooperate with ongoing initiatives at EU level, in European Member States (UK, Germany, Netherlands#) as well as at international level (Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil RTSPO, Better Sugar initiative BSI, Round Table on Sustainable Soy, Lausanne Round Table on Sustainable Biofuels RSB).The Action will contribute to consensus building for the definition of bioenergy sustainability standards, and will discuss implementation mechanisms and verification procedures. Specific attention will be given to the analysis of data quality and accuracy. The possible links between existing certification standards and proposed schemes for bioenergy at national, European and international levels will be explored, as well as the links in Europe with Biomass Action Plans in preparation at national level.Partners: DG-TREN, DG-ENV, RSB, RTSPO, BSI, RTS, European certification schemes.4. Scientific-Technical networking in the field of bioenergyThe Action will develop its participation in scientific/technical networks on bioenergy either at JRC internal level (JRC Biofuels Task Force) or at international level with partners such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD, European Environment Agency, UNEP and national institutions. In particular, the Action will develop technical links with International Energy Agency Bioenergy Tasks, specifically:Task 30 Short Rotation Crops for Bioenergy Systems,Task 29 Socio-Economic Drivers in Implementing Bioenergy Projects,Task 38 Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems,Task 40 - Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand.The Action will develop networking in the field of biofuels and bioenergy with European (AEBIOM, EREC, EBB#) and national partners (ENEA, CENER, CIEMAT, CEBIO#).Partners: IEA, OECD, UNEP, EEA, EPFL, MPOC, CENBIO...
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Objectives:!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! • 1 Communication on biomass Technical support to DG TREN and other EC DGs regarding the preparation of an EC Communication on Biomass or about other ongoing activities related to the preparation of EU legislation on Renewable Energy, Bioenergy and Biofuels, within the framework of DG TREN-JRC Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). • 2 Agro-environmental assessment of biofuels & bioenergy in tropical countries • 3 Assessment of GHG emissions related to the production and use of biofuels for transport, bio-heat and bio-electricity • 4 Assessment of the bioenergy potential at global and European levels, with specific focus on possible exports to the EU, taking into account agro-environment constraints and costs • 5 Study of the impact of biofuels/bioenergy production on water resources
!___BOLDITALIC___START!Deliverables:!___BOLDITALIC___STOP! • 1.1 Ad-hoc technical notes on biomass sustainability, GHGs emissions & savings from biofuels and Biomass Action Plans related to Annex 1.1 of the Terms of Reference of DG TREN-JRC MoU, Biomass Action Plan Implementation 2008/2009) • 2.1 Proceedings of an Expert consultation on direct and indirect impact of biofuels development on tropical deforestation in South East Asia (In cooperation with Indonesian partners, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board, World Wild Life Fund WWF and JRC IES TREES-3 Project (Action 42003, Global Forest Resource Monitoring of the IES Global Environment Monitoring Unit). Place: Jakarta, November 2009 • 2.2 Technical paper on the agro-environmental impact of biofuels from tropical countries. It will contain an assessment of biomass availability and sustainability in emerging countries, starting with the "hot topics" of sugar cane and soya in Brazil and oilseeds in East Asia, October 2009 • 2.3 Technical publication on the status of the implementation of biofuels/bioenergy certification systems with focus on the implications for EU and tropical countries, links with existing systems, research challenges and reporting constraints. November 2009 • 2.4 Technical Note on the Identification of scientific partners with expertise on Agriculture/Bioenergy/Land Management in Africa (Cooperation with IPSC Agriculture Unit and Africa JRC Thematic Programme on Africa) • 2.5 Technical Note on the statistical analysis of land use change in Brazil and the temporal evolution of deforestation/crop/pasture acreages in Brazil (from INPE, FAO, IBGE, Eur Observer...), Cooperation with IPSC Agriculture Unit • 3.1 Technical Report + Data base (with web access). Within the framework of the Well to Wheel study (JRC-EUCAR-CONCAWE) the GHG emission savings will be estimated for biofuels for transport in the case of biodiesel from palm oil and soy, as well as in the case of biogas from agricultural crops (e.g. silage mais). • 3.2 Technical Report + Data base (with web access). Based on the Well to Wheel study (JRC-EUCAR-CONCAWE) experience, the Action will assess the GHG balance of bio-heat and bio-electricity from farmed wood, waste wood and crop residues. This deliverable will be made available to the JRC Biofuels Thematic Programme. • 4.1 Proceedings of Joint JRC/IEA/UNEP Expert Consultation on the assessment of biomass resources for bioenergy at global and European levels (Meeting to be held in June 2009) • 4.2 Proceedings of a Thematic Workshop on bioenergy in Scandinavia (resource assessment and use for heat and electricity, competitive uses of feedstock, local resources and imports, support schemes, Norwegian experience and cooperation with neighbouring countries), further to a Workshop to be held in Norway with Norwegian and Scandinavian partners (Subject to funding, JRC Enlargement & Integration Programme). • 5.1 Technical Report on biofuels/bioenergy and water use. This Report will discuss biofuels/bioenergy in relation to water use, impact on water quality and quantity as well as the energy required to supply irrigation for different biomass crops
Last Updated 30/04/2009 16:18:21
Action number 13105 Last updated 30/04/2009 16:18:21 Year 2009
Title Sustainability of bioenergy
Acronym BioS
Type
Url re.jrc.ec.europa/bio
Institute IE Institute for Energy
Leader DALLEMAND JEAN-FRANCOIS   E-Mail
Policy Theme 1 Prosperity in a Knowledge intensive society
Agenda No & Title 1.3 Energy and transport
Sub-Agenda No & Title 1.3.1 Energy
Customer - users (outside the European Commission) African Union Commission (AUC)
EEA (European Environment Agency)
Research Institutions and Universities
UNEP
Customer DGs Agriculture and Rural Development  - AGRI
EuropAid  - AIDCO
Environment  - ENV
Regional Policy  - REGIO
External Relations  - RELEX
Trade  - TRADE
Energy and Transport  - TREN
Discipline Energy & Fuels
Environmental Studies
Free descriptors Renewable energies, sustainability, biofuels, environmental impact assessment, bioenergy, greenhouse gas accounting, life-cycle analysis, well-to-wheels analysis, cost-supply curves, cost-benefit analysis
Associated collaborations
Rationale

Biofuels and bioenergy policies must be based on robust science; however the complexity and commercial importance of the subject means that policy-makers receive often contradictory information, sometimes of questionable technical quality. This Action aims to provide robust information on some of the most important quantifiable parameters needed to formulate biofuels and bioenergy policy, such as:

- availability from EU and world sources,

- energy balance,

- greenhouse-gas-balance,

- environmental impact,

- cost of production and mobilisation,

- potential in emerging countries,

- competitive use and impact on existing industries.

The Biofuels/Bioenergy Action was built at the beginning of FP7 on the foundation of the input of the IES Renewable Energies Unit to the impact assessment of the revision of the Biofuels Directive, in particular the JEC (Joint Research Centre, EUCAR, CONCAWE) Well-To-Wheels (WTW) study, which is recognised as one of the main existing references for energy balance, greenhouse-gas balance and costs of alternative fuels (including biofuels). Another study of reference was performed by the JRC on the use of cereals straw resources for bioenergy in the European Union.

All the quantified benefits of biofuels have to be related to the cost-to-Europe. This is particularly important for the resource assessment; because knowing how much resource is available at what cost, and with which environmental impact, is of highest value. Some environmental parameters, e.g. water needs, soil erosion & degradation, impact on biodiversity would benefit from the reduced uncertainty linked to a geographical assessment of the biomass resource.

A large part of the biofuels (or bioenergy feedstock) is expected to come from imports for example from tropical countries such as Brazil, Malaysia and Indonesia or other countries such as Russia. For this reason, the sustainability and resource considerations must extend beyond EU borders. In addition, it is important to reach high levels of policy coherence in the European Union but also for example in Africa in relation to the sugar reform and development aid.

Regarding the legislative framework, the activities of the Bioenergy Action are performed in order to support DG TREN and provide technical input to the follow-up of the January 2008 Directive Proposal on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (COM (2008) 30). This Draft Directive proposed in January 2008 a binding 10% target for the share of renewable energy in transport petrol and diesel and is being reviewed by the European Parliament and the Council. In 2009, the Bioenergy Action will also provide ad-hoc support for example to the preparation of EC communications on bioenergy related issues and to the Strategic Energy Technologies Information System (SETIS). It will also provide support to EC DGs on the review of National Biomass Action Plans (BAPs) or the preparation of National Renewable Energies Plans. The Bioenergy contribution will be provided in close cooperation with the JRC Biofuels Task Force and other Actions such as the Cleancab Action more active on biomass conversion processes.

Summary of the action

The Action deals mainly with four issues, all interconnected:

1. Greenhouse gas performance and cost of biofuels

The Action will take care of updating the biofuels- aspects of the JEC WTW study, inserting improvements in the existing pathways (especially the second-generation biofuels routes), and expanding to cover new biofuels pathways (biodiesel from palm oil, soya#) as well as pathways for comparing alternative uses of biomass (electricity, heat-and-power, bio-heat).

It will publish and justify a methodology for the assessment of GHG performance of different pathways to biofuels production and bioenergy. It will develop a simplified form to use as a basis for GHG certification for different biofuels processes in the implementation of biofuels policies.

Partners: CONCAWE, EUCAR, Biofuels and other trade associations, IES-Transport and Air Quality Unit (Tank to Wheel part of JEC Well to Wheel study), DG-TREN, IPTS, Imperial College (on GHG certification) and others.

2. Imported biofuels and feedstocks

The Action will contribute to a realistic assessment of the production potential and growth rate of major producer countries. This will include ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil and other major sugar producers, and oilseeds for biodiesel production in tropical countries such as Malaysia. In the longer term, assessments of lignocellulose biomass imports will be addressed. The assessment will take into account effects on use in the home market.

Regarding the environmental impact in developing countries, this component will analyse the environmental impact of biofuels/bioenergy production in developing countries based on the practical experience from countries such as Brazil and Malaysia. Specific attention will be paid to the methods of quantification of agro-environmental impact and to the consequences of possible land use conversion for carbon stocks, soil, water and biodiversity.

Partners: Iinternational Energy Agency IEA, Malaysian Palm Oil Council MPOC, Centre for Biomass of Brazil CENBIO, Wageningen University, Utrecht University, Oeko Institute, Heidleberg Institute for Environmental Research, World Wildlife Fund (WWF)#

3. Biofuels and bioenergy certification

The Action will monitor the development of biofuels/bioenergy certification systems, either at national or international, identify the main pending research issues and propose ad hoc solutions in view of practical implementation with a sound scientific basis. In particular, the Action will cooperate with ongoing initiatives at EU level, in European Member States (UK, Germany, Netherlands#) as well as at international level (Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil RTSPO, Better Sugar initiative BSI, Round Table on Sustainable Soy, Lausanne Round Table on Sustainable Biofuels RSB).

The Action will contribute to consensus building for the definition of bioenergy sustainability standards, and will discuss implementation mechanisms and verification procedures. Specific attention will be given to the analysis of data quality and accuracy. The possible links between existing certification standards and proposed schemes for bioenergy at national, European and international levels will be explored, as well as the links in Europe with Biomass Action Plans in preparation at national level.

Partners: DG-TREN, DG-ENV, RSB, RTSPO, BSI, RTS, European certification schemes.

4. Scientific-Technical networking in the field of bioenergy

The Action will develop its participation in scientific/technical networks on bioenergy either at JRC internal level (JRC Biofuels Task Force) or at international level with partners such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD, European Environment Agency, UNEP and national institutions. In particular, the Action will develop technical links with International Energy Agency Bioenergy Tasks, specifically:

Task 30 Short Rotation Crops for Bioenergy Systems,

Task 29 Socio-Economic Drivers in Implementing Bioenergy Projects,

Task 38 Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems,

Task 40 - Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand.

The Action will develop networking in the field of biofuels and bioenergy with European (AEBIOM, EREC, EBB#) and national partners (ENEA, CENER, CIEMAT, CEBIO#).

Partners: IEA, OECD, UNEP, EEA, EPFL, MPOC, CENBIO...

Objectives

1 Communication on biomass Technical support to DG TREN and other EC DGs regarding the preparation of an EC Communication on Biomass or about other ongoing activities related to the preparation of EU legislation on Renewable Energy, Bioenergy and Biofuels, within the framework of DG TREN-JRC Memorandum of Understanding (MoU).

2 Agro-environmental assessment of biofuels & bioenergy in tropical countries

3 Assessment of GHG emissions related to the production and use of biofuels for transport, bio-heat and bio-electricity

4 Assessment of the bioenergy potential at global and European levels, with specific focus on possible exports to the EU, taking into account agro-environment constraints and costs

5 Study of the impact of biofuels/bioenergy production on water resources

Deliverables

2009-12-31  1.1 Ad-hoc technical notes on biomass sustainability, GHGs emissions & savings from biofuels and Biomass Action Plans related to Annex 1.1 of the Terms of Reference of DG TREN-JRC MoU, Biomass Action Plan Implementation 2008/2009)

2009-12-31  2.1 Proceedings of an Expert consultation on direct and indirect impact of biofuels development on tropical deforestation in South East Asia (In cooperation with Indonesian partners, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board, World Wild Life Fund WWF and JRC IES TREES-3 Project (Action 42003, Global Forest Resource Monitoring of the IES Global Environment Monitoring Unit). Place: Jakarta, November 2009

2009-10-30  2.2 Technical paper on the agro-environmental impact of biofuels from tropical countries. It will contain an assessment of biomass availability and sustainability in emerging countries, starting with the "hot topics" of sugar cane and soya in Brazil and oilseeds in East Asia, October 2009

2009-10-30  2.3 Technical publication on the status of the implementation of biofuels/bioenergy certification systems with focus on the implications for EU and tropical countries, links with existing systems, research challenges and reporting constraints. November 2009

2009-11-30  2.4 Technical Note on the Identification of scientific partners with expertise on Agriculture/Bioenergy/Land Management in Africa (Cooperation with IPSC Agriculture Unit and Africa JRC Thematic Programme on Africa)

2009-07-31  2.5 Technical Note on the statistical analysis of land use change in Brazil and the temporal evolution of deforestation/crop/pasture acreages in Brazil (from INPE, FAO, IBGE, Eur Observer...), Cooperation with IPSC Agriculture Unit

2009-10-30  3.1 Technical Report + Data base (with web access). Within the framework of the Well to Wheel study (JRC-EUCAR-CONCAWE) the GHG emission savings will be estimated for biofuels for transport in the case of biodiesel from palm oil and soy, as well as in the case of biogas from agricultural crops (e.g. silage mais).

2009-10-30  3.2 Technical Report + Data base (with web access). Based on the Well to Wheel study (JRC-EUCAR-CONCAWE) experience, the Action will assess the GHG balance of bio-heat and bio-electricity from farmed wood, waste wood and crop residues. This deliverable will be made available to the JRC Biofuels Thematic Programme.

2009-10-30  4.1 Proceedings of Joint JRC/IEA/UNEP Expert Consultation on the assessment of biomass resources for bioenergy at global and European levels (Meeting to be held in June 2009)

2009-12-31  4.2 Proceedings of a Thematic Workshop on bioenergy in Scandinavia (resource assessment and use for heat and electricity, competitive uses of feedstock, local resources and imports, support schemes, Norwegian experience and cooperation with neighbouring countries), further to a Workshop to be held in Norway with Norwegian and Scandinavian partners (Subject to funding, JRC Enlargement & Integration Programme).

2009-10-30  5.1 Technical Report on biofuels/bioenergy and water use. This Report will discuss biofuels/bioenergy in relation to water use, impact on water quality and quantity as well as the energy required to supply irrigation for different biomass crops

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